If your name is Said we have a little story for you; siegħa and Said have a common origin
Before the advent of the Agricultural Era, most people depended on the sea and small groups were hunter-gatherers. Food had to be found every day. People who were lucky not be sick or wounded, were able to start the day early. The act of starting the day to look for food is called *S’ “seek, find, make an effort,” etc. From this Stone Age biliteral root is S’eed (Said) “happy,” and “sa’adah” “happiness.” This may sound funny: In Arabic saa’i al barid is “postman” because he or she seeks people to give them the letters or parcles. Another is this: In Ancient Arabic su’baan is “snake,” for nothing more than seeking food, like humans. It is found in the form of thu’baan which is a corruption because the letter “th” is not ancient. The root is the origin of Maltese siegħa. It did not mean “hour” in the past but a certain time to begin looking for food, usually at day break.
Those with original Maltese proper names or surnames can send us their names and we will try to explain them etymologically. With the names tell us what do you think they mean because that can be helpful. But be patient. We are very busy.
Image: kennethrh60, a painting by Andrew Atroshenko
SHE CAN HIDE BUT SHE CAN’T RUN – NOT BEFORE AND PROBABLY NOT AFTER
Girls afraid of the wedding night may want to remember that all our ancestral mums went through the same ordeal any many appear to have survived to fight another day for things far more important.
If you are afraid he may be disappointed, he may be scared stiff this strangest of all tools may malfunction and disappoint both of you, all the family and friends and shame the humanity of men around the world until Kingdom come.
We only thought about this post when we read a post from an Arab girl with some experience telling her sisters not to worry too much because the man may be worried about the first night even more. She provided no interesting details.
There is a great deal of rubbish in the West about virginity written mostly by men with silly questions like: “Are there virgins left out there?” It appears there are, and more than some men would like to think. Girls who slept with their boyfriends have complained that since they had their first encounter, the boy wants to do nothing else. Even an ice cream had to be licked from a flat position.
Still, in the West it is a private matter, more or less, but not in most Eastern societies. In many Arab countries girls are still murdered by relatives for losing their virginity and the pressures to remain virgins are considerable.
In some cases, mothers of the brides would be waiting outside the bedroom to get the proof of blood spillage to show relatives their daughters were chaste. We have many friends who slept with their girlfriends before marriage and most of them are still together. In a few cases, the parents of girls with lost virginity may offer the groom to be significant discount on the dowry which usually goes to the girl who may use it to buy things for herself or her flat.
Some daring Arab girls who slept with their boyfriends, or what have you, appear to have regretted the decisions and they are flocking to London by the plane load to freshen it up. Here is more on the subject of virginity:
And here is a story about a Lebanese girl who blinked at her boyfriend’s flat and woke up to find herself virginless and thought “never in the history of womanhood virginity was sacrificed so cheaply.”
If summing up is required, it is not as strict as it used to be say 50 years ago but it all depends on the families and regions.
In Akkadian, there are a number of words to denote virgins or inexperienced girls such as:
1- ardatu: young woman, maiden, maid, virgin, lass;
2- batultu, batussu: [Human → Body] an adolescent girl, a nubile girl, a teenage girl, a young maid, a virgin (?);
3- batūssu: a girl, a maid, a virgin;
4- lā lamdu: [Moral life → Conscience] 1): without experience, inexperienced; virgin;
5- lummudu: [Education] 1): word: taught; 2);
6- unīqu: [Animals] young she-goat, a kid [religion]: [unīqu lā petītu]: a virgin kid;
7- wardatu: a girl, a young woman, a maid / a virgin.
The fact there are a number of words that mean or could mean “virgin” is significant in itself because they prove virginity was important. However, not all the words literary mean “virgin”. The first one is famous since it is the origin of “Eros, erotic and erotology”. The root is *ʼR. It is a category so it is all inclusive of private parts and the joint life of man and woman.
The other part of the linguistic cluster is the reversed *Rʼ “see” (*Rʼa). What has ‘seeing’ to do with sex and man-woman partnership? They have to see each other before anything can happen. This cluster is logical – boys and girls saw each other, met, fell in love and got together.
Word no 7 (wardatu) is from the same root but the linguistic structure is different: w+*ʼR. This is a beautiful word and it means “rose”. So, there you have it, a “rose” is not a metaphor for a girl but the name of a girl herself. The name remains today one of the most popular in the Arab world although it is several thousand years ago as a trilateral and probably 40,000 years + as a root because love, sex, marriage, children and home-making is a second-generation linguistic invention, the first includes words connected with life, like water, food, etc.
The root of the two nouns in no 2 and 3 is the same but we are surprised to find it with a ‘b’ rather than ‘p’, so it is possible it was migrated during the Amorite era, or Babylonian rather than Assyrian era. ‘*PT’ is “to sever, stop, cease, abstain, cut something from the root”. It simply means a girl who is severed from sex. Mary, Jesus mum, is called “Mary the batul”, i.e. “the one who abstains from sex”.
Words 4 and 5 do not mean “inexperienced” but literary “untaught” as a girl may have an encyclopedic knowledge of sex but can’t write her name. It is from the same root as ‘talmīdu’ “school boy, pupil, student, disciple.”
Image credit: patrasevents.gr
As in our times, not all marriages in ancient times would have been successful. Divorce and separation in some cases are expected. We need no more than identify the words for divorce and separation with the necessary attestation to conclude our ancestors did know both cases.
Such words exist in Akkadian: “ezēbu: G. to leave, go away; to set aside, ignore; to let, hold back, leave behind; to abandon, let go Gt. to get divorced, separate D = G Š. to cause to leave; to save, rescue Št1. to be rescued Štn. to rescue continually N. to be left untilled (field); to be delayed; to be left over; to be divorced.”
The word (ezēbu) is derived from the root *ZB “penis”, a tool necessary for successful marriages. In Arabic ‘aʻzab’ is “bachelor, single and unmarried”. The IPA ʻ is “ayn” not a hamza, a short ‘a’.
Interestingly, another Akkadian word that means “leading a single life” is uzubbû: [Human → Family] divorce, separation.” It is very similar to the same word with the same meaning used in contemporary Arabic “uzubba”. It is from the same root with a possible meaning of “a lonely penis”, one of the worst types of loneliness known to man, some men say.
Akkadian ramû is a lexical entry listed under “separate”. It has several meanings including: “to slacken, to become loose / limp: flaccid, to give way, to ease off, to indulge; to release, to let go, to set free, to move on, to release a lock, to feel free-doing, to clear away / absolve / clean / forgive, to give something up, to relinquish, leave, to quit, to reject, to discard, to disregard, to dump, to throw away, to renounce”, etc. The original meaning is “to throw away” from the root *RM connected originally with food discarded or thrown away if rotten or unfit for human consumption. We know this because the reversed root *MR means “bitter” which can be applied figuratively to mean miserable like “bitter domestic quarrels”.
In both Islamic and pre-Islamic traditions, a divorcee is entitled to a post payment in the case of divorce of an agreed sum of money, or camels, goats and other things of good value in older times. Either party can seek divorce in Arabian societies but it is understood a wife who seeks divorce may not be entitled to the post payment. Her jewellery is her own in all cases regardless of the gifter.
It may be noted that ezēbu, uzubbû and ramû do not specifically mean divorce but the meaning is accepted by consensus of the speakers. The same applies to ancient Arabic in which divorce is from a root that means “emerge” (*ṬL).
Divorce was very rare in ancient societies as the split affects not just the husband and wife but their families and sometimes their tribe or tribes. Even in developed societies like ancient Athena thousands of years later, divorce was not a personal decision. An application for divorce had to be submitted to a magistrate who may study the reasons before making a decision to grant the divorce or reject it. It is also believed divorce was rare in early Roman culture.
Divorce is sanctioned in Islam with a qualification expressed in a well-known saying: “Divorce for Allah is the most hateful sanctioned process” Also in the Quran women should be released with kindness upon divorce but it rarely does probably due to the irrationality of a relationship primarily built on emotions.
Some marriages in our times last 50 or even 60 years but marriage was invented when life expectancy in the Stone Age was about 36 years, which means both partners die still young or rather before they had enough of each other and the flames of love would have burnt to the last moments.
Image credit: vix.com
“Satan (Hebrew: שָּׂטָן Satan, meaning “adversary”;  Arabic: شيطان shaitan, meaning “astray” or “distant”, sometimes “devil”) is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions  who brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament, Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who possesses demonic qualities” (Wikipedia).
This partly temple jargon sounds too complex for our ancestors. Guys and girls, the famous river Nile has a very simple origin “rain water” from the root *N’ that gave us ‘nautical’. The word now refers to navigation, sea, maritime, sailor and what have you but *N’ originally meant something far away, like the formation of clouds and weather variations that bring rain. The root is found in dozens of words in several European languages. It is the origin of Norway, near, nor, no etc.
And here is a surprise: ‘*N’m’ (nam > sleep) was thought of by our ancient ancestors as a state of “going away” or “lapsing”. So, let’s think really simple about all ancient words, really, really simple.
Satan is a Nucleitic Compound (NC) made of two different roots. The first is Š’ or *ŠY (shay). The category of this root and its primary (’Š) is all about trees, branches and wood. When in English you say “a thing” you are using a general word to describe or denote an item. Branches, etc., were plentiful so a branch or a stick or a piece of wood is not very far from where you are, and it is ‘the thing’ par excellence.
The Š (sh) in the case is not substitutable because the root will be different. ShayṬan is a common word in Arabic diglossia which still retains the primeval bilateral linguistic rhythm and it used as a verb to mean “naughtiness” especially by children. In all cases where the “sh” is substituted by an “s” a mistake is made unless the substitution is deliberate to conceal the origin, a possibility that’s difficult to prove due to the importance given to the name by religious texts as an entity imperative to believe in in order to believe in the deliverance from Satan by God.
The second root. *ṬN is not with ‘t’ but a hard ‘t’ such as the one in ‘ton’ (IPA > Ṭ). The root has an original meaning “to settle down” but the root in “Satan” is an onomatopoeia or the human approximation of a sound with any or several of the following meanings:
“A shrill sound; make a clear resonant sound, like that of a bell being struck; make a humming sound; move rapidly or excitedly; be filled with a buzzing noise; to make a continuous low dull sound; make short sharp ringing sound; fill a place with sound; produce echoes; emit or cause to emit this sound; ring; plunk; peal or rattle; clank; make a continuous rapid buzzing or softly clicking sound as of a bird’s wings or of cog-wheels in constant motion.”
In certain cases, ear ringing and other abnormal ear noises occur. If persistent it becomes a medical case called “tinnitus”. People with tinnitus perceive buzzing, roaring, and pulsatile sounds when no actual sound is present. Tinnitus can arise from problems in any of the four areas responsible for hearing: the outer ear, the middle ear, the inner ear, and the brain.
This sudden buzzing and hissing caused ancient people to question the reaspm. They didn’t exactly know what caused the sounds so they simply described them as “something that rings in the ear”. The word ‘ton’ is used in Arabic to describe the sound of bells. Priests, however, thought otherwise and produced a creature from this noise *ŠY/*ṬN, literary “something that rang (in the ear) but priestly speak “a horrid evil creature that tells people to fornicate, steal, kill, etc.”
And this is the very simple origin of Shaytan and Satan. If you need another name for it call it “the whisperer”.
Satan is not in Akkadian. The closest to the impression about Satans are the following:
1- “lilītu: [Religion → Myths] a she-devil, a she-demon, a demoness.” The word means nothing more than a creature of the night > ‘Lil’ “night”.
2- “kiskilili: [Religion → Myths] a demoness, a she-devil.” Like Satan, this word is a Nucleitic Compound: The second part (Ilili) has the same meaning like ‘lil’ “night”. The first part ‘kis’ is “woman private part” to indicate female.
Sarah, beehive, throne, king, queen and Assyrian emperor Sargon of Akkad have a common origin
Online Etymology Dictionary has this about Sarah: fem. proper name, Biblical wife of Abraham and mother of Isaac, from Hebrew, literally “princess,” from sarah, fem. of sar “prince,” from sarar “he ruled,” related to Akkad. sharratu “queen.” Popular as a name for girls born in U.S. in 1870s and 1978-2000.
More temple jargon and not quite accurate. Assyrians who built a huge empire in Mesopotamia and beyond followed a system of tribal consultation that originated in southern Arabia as they were originally ancient Yemenis. The supreme council of their 12 tribes elected a leader to rule in their name. The council’s name is Shura “consultation” derived from a root (*Ŝ’) of several meanings including beehive. The most famous ruler elected by the supreme council was Sargon of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kēn; sometimes known as “Sargon the Great”), first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC (Wikipedia).
As in most other Stone Age biliteral (made of two letters) roots, speakers needed to extend the language to express more and more cases and situations that fall within the semantic domain of the root. So, from the original meaning of a consultative appointee, his title (king), his seat (known in Ancient Arabic as sareer, literary bed, but also throne), his or her method of consultation (shura), etc.
The name has many attestations in Akkadian, a sister of Ancient Arabic, and the language with a significant influence on English and other European languages.
Needless to say, Sarah should be Šarah but letter migration and substitution are significant in all relevant languages and it may not be considered a “corruption”.
The “h” in the proper name of Sarah has a feminine ending, originally “t”.
Wikipedia and other sources keep repeating “Semitic” this and “Semitic” that but that’s a misconception created by 19th century temple scholars. The only Semitic language in history is Sumerian. Just look at their common root: *SM. This root is the origin of English same, similar, smart, etc. This is so because Sumerians are cousins of Phoenicians, a Greek coinage applied to certain Canaanites.
Consult, if you have nothing better to do, these Akkadian entries:
šarratu : [Government] queen
šarru [LUGAL : ] (n. ; st. constr. šar, šarri ; pl. šarrū, šarrānū)
[Government] a king , a monarch;
bītu šarri ( ; Aechemenid period)
“the house of the King” / the Royal Exchequer ;
Cf. bītu, bītu šanû, ša bītu šanî, šarru
And these Ancient Arabian entries:
sareer “bed, throne”
shar “pointed at”
*Resident Beehive Literary Circle Etymologist, Adel S. Bishtawi is author of Origin of “Semitic” Languages. Those interested can reach for Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/Origin-Semitic-Languages-Arabic-Bishtawi/dp/1481798898
mage credit: About everybody on the Internet
Humans are the only animals who seem to blush and shed emotional tears but our resident etymologist will talk today about blushing.
*ḪJ (Ḫ = German ‘ch’) is a linguistic root called mono syllabic root morpheme. From it is the suffixed specifier extension ‘*ḪJl’ (*ḪJ+l) “blushing, shyness”. Another suffixed specifier is *ḪJʼ (*ḪJ+ʼ = a very short ‘a’). Here is what Lisan al-Arab, a dictionary compiled more than 700 years ago has to say about it: ḪJʼ “Screw. He ḪJʼ a woman: screwed her. A man who’s sex-mad is ḪJʼa.”
As we tried to determine what category the root was used to express we found three different meanings two of which are relevant: 1) ḪJ “a slit”; 2) “a type of wind that blows with dalliance”.
Dalliance is said to be “a casual romantic or sexual relationship. Ex. “Jack was not averse to an occasional dalliance with a pretty girl like Jill.” Also: “a period of brief or casual involvement with something.”
The third meaning is curious: ‘ḪaJḪJa’ “kneeling very quickly and compressingly; hiding in a discreet location”.
The beauty about Arabic lexicographers is that sometimes they give accurate meanings of ancient words but they have absolutely no idea what are they describing or what ancient roots are. For that, you need the intervention of etymology.
When an etymologist puts all these words together the category reveals itself as casual sex at prehistoric lightening speed. Young Li finds Oz attractive. To lure him, she walks like a belly dancing wind. When a suitable place is found she kneels very quickly and a free bait is allowed to be taken willingly by the chosen one. She doesn’t even have to undress. She’s already naturally undressed and ready.
So why the blushing?
“Blushing is the involuntary reddening of a person’s face due to emotional stress. Examples of emotional responses that may trigger blushing include embarrassment, anger, or romantic stimulation. Severe blushing is common in people who suffer from social anxiety in which the person experiences extreme and persistent anxiety in social and performance situations” (Wikipedia).
So it looks like it is caused by anxiousness of being seen by her family. Husbands and boyfriends as well? Maybe.
Other animals are not thought to blush, only humans. We’ve left the Stone Age behind thousands of years ago but people, and especially girls, still blush.
But we have another theory. Blushing makes the cheeks rosier and, like a red healthy apple, the girl becomes instantly edible. And why do they turn aside or hide their face? Probably they don’t want you to know the thing they want but want you to know without wanting to tell you.
Blush away, girls. It goes straight for the heart. Your ancestral mums blushed and look how many billions we are today.
Bishtawi is author of Origins of “Semitic” Languages, Origin of Arabic Numerals and Natural Foundations of Arabian Civilisation: Origins of alphabets, numeration, numerals, measurements and money.
Caption: Beautiful Li blushing for Oz
Lilith is claimed to have been a dangerous demon of the night who happens to enjoy sex. Applied Biliteral Etymology would suggest anothe fable, one of many found in religious texts. Collier’s painting, 𝘓𝘪𝘭𝘪𝘵𝘩, is a corruption of 𝘭𝘦𝘪𝘭𝘢𝘵, female for ‘night’ which also derives from the Stone Age biliteral root *L’. The original female ending, t, is corrupted to ‘th’, a letter not found in Ancient Arabian or Akkadian.
The association of our mother Eve, God bless her soul, with the serpent is the result of a misunderstanding of the semantic domain of the biliteral root from which both Eve and Serpent derive. The root is the famous *H’ “water, water basin, cold,” etc. Because water is vital for life our mother Eve and the serpent derive from the same root, i.e. water. The question “why is the serpent involved with Eve?” is answered by the fact that our Stone Age ancestors, God bless their souls, were fascinated by serpents. They have no legs to run on but they are fast and almost always agile out of their hiding places.
But what do demons and jennies have to do with all this? Well, nights in the Stone Age were dangerous times. The tigers and other large cats were larger than the ones we know today, and cobras and other venomous snakes gave deadly bites from which survival was difficult. They were ‘no go’ areas. Mums worried that their young daughters may slip out at night to meet their boyfriends invented mysterious dangerous to scare them off. For many it does not seem to have worked and the punishment, usually a light slap on the wrist, was a small price for a loving kiss.
Actually English 𝘯𝘰 is an original Stone Age biliteral root that has several meanings including “far”. So, going far in Europe was a “no go’ place rather than at night. The biliteral *N’ is the origin of night, near, no, none, etc.
The painting was completed in 1892 and it is now exhibited in Southport Atkinson Art Gallery.
And by way, our resident etymologist is author of 𝗢𝗿𝗶𝗴𝗶𝗻 𝗼𝗳 𝗦𝗲𝗺𝗶𝘁𝗶𝗰 𝗟𝗮𝗻𝗴𝘂𝗮𝗴𝗲𝘀, a most unfortunate name as only Sumerian is “Semitic” and the rest, some 70 languages, are mothered by Ancient Arabian, a Stone Age tongue.
Now that the piece is written, we can confess that we thought we do not want the dads and mums to be angry at Beehive Literary Circle so we provided a chopped image.